Cabbage is a terribly misunderstood vegetable. Most people know it as cole slaw, with its gobbets of mayonnaise, which is yet another polarizing food. Saurkraut is its other common incarnation, and while I like saurkraut, it's easy to understand why most people don't (this is not the pregnancy speaking--I really do like saurkraut). But cabbage salad that's not cole slaw?
Salting is a technique similar to brining, in the sense that both involve steeping something (meat or vegetable) in massive quantities of salt. With meat, you use a salt-and-water (or whiskey) solution. With vegetables, you just toss lots of chopped vegetables with a tablespoonful or two of salt and wait. In both cases, osmosis draws water out from the food, and you end up with a very tender and, depending on how thoroughly you rinse off the salt, slightly salty food. For vegetables, you get a tender-yet-still-crunchy effect.
It is this tender-yet-still-crunchy texture that makes this too-simple-to-screw-up salad so good that it beats the pants out of any cole slaw out there (sorry, Jeroen Meus). You take a bit of cabbage, and chop it up fine--you could shred it, but I find that chopping is the best way to preserve the texture of the more delicate leaves. Assemble it, layer by layer, in a bowl, with a sprinkling of salt in between layers. Let it sit in the fridge for about an hour. Rinse off the salt (this may take 2-3 rinsings), and let the cabbage drain. Dress it with a bit of olive oil, a dash of vinegar if you want. Done. Light, crunchy, mild, and not "cabbage-y" (that sickeningly-sweet taste of a too-thick rib--the salt probably does something with that compound that makes that flavor). Perfect.
Of course there are a thousand other things you could put into this salad if you so choose: radishes, carrots, sweet onions, fennel, and daikon (if you can get it) all pickle nicely, and if a bowl of plain cabbage sounds a bit too, well, plain to you, by all means play around. I hear raisins go quite nicely with a cabbage salad, and Karel is inexplicably partial shallots. For myself, though, I like it simple. Cabbage has enough diversity in its layers and parts that I don't see much need to fix what ain't broke.